This year, the markets have experienced constant volatility. (Infobase)

continuation session for the Bovespawhich closed the day of Tuesday March 14 with a variation of the 0.18%until the 102,932.38 dots. He Bovespa reaches a maximum volume of 104,153.48 dots and a minimum volume of 102,482.23 dots. The trading range for the Bovespa between its highest point and its lowest point (maximum-minimum) during this day, it was at the 1.6%.

If we consider the data of the last seven days, the Bovespa records a decline 1.24%so that year-on-year there is still a decrease in the 7.86%. He Bovespa is located 9.92% below its maximum this year (114,270.07 points)

a stock market index is an indicator that shows how the price of a set of assets is changingfor which it collects data from various companies or sectors in a part of the market.

These indicators are mainly used by the exchanges of each country and each of them can be integrated by signatures with different specificities like having a similar market capitalization or being in the same type of industry, there are also some indices that only consider a handful of stocks to determine their value or others that consider hundreds of stocks.

Stock indices serve as indicator of confidence in stock market, business confidence, health of national and global economy and stock investment performance and shares of an entity. If investors lack confidence, stock values ​​tend to fall.

They are also working to measure the performance of an asset manager and allow investors to compare profitability and risk; measure the opportunities of a financial asset or create portfolios.

These types of indicators began to be used at the end of the 19th century after the journalist Charles H. Dow. carefully observed how the stock prices of companies tended to rise or fall together, so he created two indices: one containing the 20 largest railway companies (since this was the largest industry in the world). era), as well as 12 shares of other types of companies

Currently, in our economy, there are various indices and they can partner based on geography, industries, company size, or even asset typeFor example, the American Nasdaq index is made up of the 100 largest companies mainly related to technology such as Apple (AAPL), Microsoft (MSFT), Amazon (AMZN), Facebook (FB), Alphabet (GOOG), Tesla (TSLA ), Nvidia (NVDA), PayPal (PYPL), Comcast (CMCSA), Adobe (ADBE).

Each stock index has its own calculation method, but the main component is the market capitalization of each company that incorporates it. This is obtained by multiplying the daily value of the share in the corresponding stock market by the total number of shares outstanding in the market.

Listed companies are required to present a balance sheet of its composition. This report must be submitted every three or six months, as the case may be.

Reading a stock market index also means examining its variations over time. Current indices always start with a fixed value based on stock prices on their start date, but not everyone follows this method. Therefore, it may seem misleading.

If one index adds 500 points in one day, while another only adds 20, it may appear that the former has outperformed. However, if the first started the day at 30,000 points and the other at 300, we can assume that in percentage terms the gains for the second were considerable.

Between the major US stock indices is the Dow Jones Industrial Average, better known as the Dow Jones, of which 30 companies are part. Likewise, the S&P500, which includes 500 of the largest companies on the New York Stock Exchange. Finally comes the Nasdaq 100which associates 100 of the largest non-financial companies.

On the other hand, the most important indices of Europe are the Euro Stoxx 50, which covers the 50 largest companies in the euro area. Also DAX 30, the main German index containing the most outstanding companies on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange; there FTSE100 the London Stock Exchange; he CAC 40 of the Paris Stock Exchange; and the IBEX 35of the Spanish stock exchange.

In the asian continentwe have the Nikki 225, made up of the 225 largest companies on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Also SSE composite index, is considered the main in China, consisting of the most important companies of the Shanghai Stock Exchange. The same role played by the Hang Seung Index in Hong Kong and the KOSPI in South Korea.

As it concerns the Latin American regionyou have the IPCwhich contains the 35 Most Outstanding Companies on the Mexican Stock Exchange (BMV). At least a third of them belong to the capital of tycoon Carlos Slim.

Another is the Bovespa, composed of the 50 most important companies of the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange; he Merval from Argentina; he IPSA From Chile; he MSCI COLCAP Columbia; he IBC of Caracas, made up of 6 companies from Venezuela.

Similarly, there are other types of global stock indices such as the MSCI Latin Americawhich includes the 137 most important companies from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.

Likewise, there is MSCI World, which brings together 1,600 companies from 23 developed countries; he MSCI Emerging Markets, made up of more than 800 companies from developing countries; and the S&P Global 100made up of the 100 most powerful multinational corporations on the entire planet.

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