The taliban, who arrived at the gates of the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul, while President Ashraf Ghani left the country, they ruled between 1996 and 2001 imposing a rigorous interpretation of Sharia (Muslim law).
These are 7 keys to knowing this radical movement:
1. Students of religion
In 1994, the movement of the taliban (“Students in religion”) appeared in Afghanistan, a country devastated by the war against the Soviets (1979-89) and facing a fratricidal struggle between Mujahideen since the fall of the communist regime in Kabul, which occurred in 1992.
Formed in the madrasas (Koranic schools) of neighboring Pakistan, where these Sunni Islamists took refuge during the conflict with the Soviets, the Taliban were led by the mysterious Mullah Mohammad Omar, who died in 2003, and succeeded by Mullah Akhtar Mansur, who was assassinated in 2016 in Pakistan.
Currently, the Taliban are led by Haibatullah Akhundzada and Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar, co-founder of the movement, heads the political wing.
Like most of the Afghan population, they are essentially Pashtuns, the ethnic group that has dominated the country almost uninterruptedly for two centuries.
2. Blazing ascent
The Taliban promised to restore order and justice, and this was how they achieved a blazing rise, with the support of Pakistan and the tacit approval of the United States.
In October 1994, almost without a fight they took Kandahar, the former royal capital.
Endowed with a military arsenal and a large war treasure that allowed them to buy from local commanders, they seized Kabul on September 27, 1996.
3. Regime of terror
When they were in power, the Taliban imposed a strict Islamic law that prohibited games, music, photographs and television. He denied women the right to work and schools for girls were closed.
In March 2001, the dynamite destruction of the giant Buddhas of Bamiyan (center) sparked international outrage.
The seat of power moved to Kandahar, where Mullah Omar was being held in a house built by Osama bin Laden, the leader of Al Qaeda.
The territory of the Taliban became a sanctuary for jihadists from all over the world, who came there to train, in particular those of Al Qaeda.
After the attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, perpetrated by Al Qaida, Washington and its NATO allies launched an extensive military operation in the country on October 7 of that same year, after the Taliban regime refused. to hand over Bin Laden.
On December 6 they capitulated. Both the Taliban and Al Qaeda leaders fled to the south and east of the country and also to Pakistan.
5. Bloody rebellion
Attacks and ambushes against the western armed forces multiplied.
In July 2015, Pakistan hosted the first direct talks, supported by the United States and China, between the Afghan government and the Taliban.
6. Historical agreement
In mid-2018, the Americans and the Taliban began discreet negotiations in Doha, interrupted several times after attacks on US troops.
On February 29, 2020, Washington signed a historic agreement with the Taliban, which provided for the withdrawal of foreign soldiers in exchange for security guarantees and the opening of negotiations.
7. US withdrawal and Taliban offensive
On July 8, 2021, US President Joe Biden declares that the withdrawal of his forces, which began in May, will be “completed on August 31”.
The Taliban, on the offensive since May, arrived at the gates of Kabul on August 15, having taken control of almost the entire country without encountering much resistance.
President Ashraf Ghani leaves Afghanistan on Sunday, according to a former vice president. The Afghan government promises a peaceful transition.
Melissa Galbraith is the World News reporter for Globe Live Media. She covers all the major events happening around the World. From Europe to Americas, from Asia to Antarctica, Melissa covers it all. Never miss another Major World Event by bookmarking her author page right here.